Arely Peckham
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Inside the Cookie: The Science Behind Baking

— Arely Peckham

Have you ever wondered why almost all recipes call for flour, sugar, eggs, and leavening agents (like baking powder or yeast)? The answer has to do with the unique chemistry of the baking process!

Flour is the foundation of most baked goods. It contains gluten protein, which gives bread its signature chewy texture. When flour is mixed with a liquid, such as water or milk, the gluten forms a web that entraps air bubbles, creating a stable structure for the baked good. By providing stability, flour prevents the finished product from not rising properly or even collapsing in the oven.

Sugar is equally as important as flour—not only does it add sweetness, it also tenderizes. When sugar molecules interact with water molecules, they limit the development of the gluten protein (which hardens baked goods).

Eggs enhance the velvety texture of baked goods, prevent them from drying out, and serve as the baking glue that binds all of the ingredients together. When exposed to heat, egg-white proteins collide with water molecules. This collision breaks the weak bonds in the proteins and allows them to form new chemical bonds with other ingredients.

Leavening agents are necessary for baked goods to rise effectively. One common agent is baking powder, a combination of baking soda and acid that releases carbon dioxide gas when combined with a liquid. This is an acid-base reaction that results in the expansion of gas bubbles and the rising of dough. Yeast, another common leavening agent, is a microorganism that consumes sugar and similarly releases carbon dioxide gas in the process, allowing batter to rise.

While these ingredients are vital, the reactions that occur during the baking process are what truly bring out the flavor in baked products. One essential reaction is the Maillard reaction, which gives food its toasty color and taste. The Maillard reaction is triggered by heat, which breaks down carbohydrates and proteins in the batter, generating distinct aromas and flavor. This is the sole reason why some breads are pale and bland, while others have that golden-brown color and hearty flavor.

So, it’s fair to call all bakers chemists. Although, for some, the concept of lab coats and beakers may not be the most appetizing thought!

Premium Vector | Easter cake ingredient. set of elements: milk, flour, eggs,  sugar, butter, yeast, cheese. cartoon illustration


References

Graff, F. (2022, August 10). The Golden Rule of Baking. PBS North Carolina. https://www.pbsnc.org/blogs/science/bake-at-350/

Mandal, R. (2019, August 15). Ready, set, bake. Physics World. https://physicsworld.com/a/ready-set-bake/#:~:text=Chemistry%2C%20as%20you%20mix%20different,the%20rise%20to%20the%20bakes.

Michalska, A., Amigo-Benavent, M., Zielinski, H., & Dolores del Castillo, M. (2007, September 6). Effect of bread making on formation of Maillard reaction products contributing to the overall antioxidant activity of rye bread. Journal of Cereal Science. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0733521007001634

Palca, J. (2012, October 11). 100 years ago, Maillard taught us why our food tastes better cooked. NPR. https://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/10/10/162636059/100-years-ago-maillard-taught-us-why-our-food-tastes-better-cooked

Quillen, E. (2022, February 15). The science behind Golden Brown Bread and extra-crispy croissants. King Arthur Baking. https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/blog/2022/02/15/understanding-the-maillard-reaction-in-baking#:~:text=At%20its%20most%20basic%20level,%2B%20sugar%20%2B%20heat%20%3D%20browning

Marharytakovalenko. (2020, February 14). Easter cake ingredient. set of elements: Milk, flour, eggs, sugar, butter, yeast, cheese. Freepik. https://www.freepik.com/premium-vector/easter-cake-ingredient-set-elements-milk-flour-eggs-sugar-butter-yeast-cheese-cartoon-illustration_6919868.htm